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WHEN IS THE BEST TIME TO EXERCISE AND LOSE THE MOST WEIGHT?

Exercise is good for you any time of day, but science has found certain advantages and disadvantages to working out at different times. Consider these factors before choosing when to work out, and experiment to see how different times affect you.
Morning. An early workout can start your day right by boosting your energy and releasing endorphins (natural mood boosters). There’s also some evidence that early-bird exercisers tend to make fitness a habit and stick with it. Plus, morning exercise may help you sleep better at night. In a study of postmenopausal women with sleep problems, morning exercisers who worked out at least 3.5 hours a week had less trouble falling asleep than evening exercisers. Researchers speculate that morning exercise affects hormone levels in ways that promote better sleep.
Yet, an AM workout may mean getting out of bed earlier, a potential obstacle. Plus, morning exercisers may be more prone to injury: Your body temperature is at its lowest, leaving your muscles less flexible. To sidestep this, move in slow motion for 10 minutes until your muscles are warmed up.
Afternoon. My favorite time to exercise is usually 3 or 4 p.m. Recent research suggests a late-afternoon workout may be the most productive because that’s when your body temperature is highest. Your muscles are more flexible and less prone to injury, your lung performance is at its best, and you have the greatest strength.
If you like to exercise in the early afternoon, such as during your lunch break, I suggest doing so before you eat if you’re trying to lose weight. Since carbohydrates turn into blood sugar, consuming carbohydrate-rich foods before a workout will cause the body to use that sugar as fuel. This prevents the burning of fat calories and keeps fat stores intact. If you want to shed pounds, work out on an empty stomach.
Evening. After a long day, an evening workout helps to relieve stress. But depending on the timing, exercise can be stimulating and interfere with sleep. This is less of a problem if you avoid working out within one to three hours before heading to bed; that’s about how long it usually takes for your body temperature to decrease after vigorous physical activity.

SIX GREAT FOODS

What’s ahead for food and nutrition in the coming years? I hope to see more movement toward an anti-inflammatory diet. This eating plan is not truly a “diet” but rather the nutritional component of a healthy lifestyle. It recommends more fresh fruits (mostly berries) and low Gl vegetables, whole grains, and foods rich in omega-3 fats such as salmon, walnuts, and ground flax and more low-fat animal protein, lower saturated and trans fats, as well as less foods made from refined flour and sugar. Eating this way can help prevent age-related diseases linked with chronic inflammation. I think the low-carb craze is passing. But know the difference between good carbs, which are digested slowly, and lower-quality choices that are digested rapidly, raise blood sugar, and may promote weight gain. For this year, I’ll spotlight six foods to eat more often:
Berries. These small, colorful fruits are loaded with antioxidants that may help protect against cancer and oxidative damage to the eyes, brain, heart, and joints. Berries are easy on calories and brimming with fiber and phytonutrients, and they won’t cause spikes in blood sugar, either. Among them, blueberries top the antioxidant charts thanks to their powerful pigments. I prefer organic varieties.
Black cod. Increasingly available in this country, black cod might also be called butter-fish or sablefish in restaurants and fish markets. Its velvety and mild-flavored flesh is treasured in Japan. With more omega-3 fats than salmon, black cod is a good food for your heart and has low levels of mercury and PCB contaminants. Smoked sable sold at Jewish or Russian delis is black cod, a fish that can also be broiled, steamed, or grilled in miso (soybean paste). Choose black-cod products from Alaska, where it’s a sustainable resource.
Buckwheat: While considered a whole grain, buckwheat is a relative of rhubarb and contains no wheat. A slowly digested carbohydrate that’s filled with fiber, buckwheat has an earthy taste. People with wheat allergies or celiac disease can eat buckwheat grits, groats, and kernels (known as kasha) because they lack gluten. (But products made with buckwheat flour including breads and Japanese soba noodles may also contain wheat flour unless they’re labeled gluten free.)
Sweet potatoes: Let these Thanksgiving favorites grace your table year-round. These yellow- and orange-fleshed vegetables earn praise as excellent sources of vitamins A ( carotenoids that preserve eye health) and C, and for their fiber if you eat the skin. A baked one has about 100 calories. Okinawans enjoy purple-fleshed sweet potatoes.
Turmeric: The color and flavor of curries and American mustard come from this yellow-orange spice that’s a staple in Indian and Asian cooking. Turmeric is being intensely studied for its anti-inflammatory and cancer-protective effects. With evidence growing for the health benefits of curcumin, turmeric’s medically active ingredient, I suggest spicing up your cooking with it now. This spring, make turmeric tea—a refreshing, unsweetened instant beverage commonly served cold in Okinawa.
Walnuts. These plant-based powerhouses of alpha-linolenic acid (an omega-3 fatty acid) and vitamin E can also supply a sweet and crunchy source of protein and fiber.
Whether you snack on a handful, mix into salads and main dishes, or chop them into baked goods, walnuts are versatile and rank as one of the most popular nuts in the world.

MORE WEIGHT LOSS MYTHS

Losing weight is hard work. People feel they have to count calories, endure hunger pangs, and work up a sweat. It’s no wonder so many give up and regain hard-lost pounds. The reason we are losing the battle of the bulge is that we have bought into some common myths about weight loss. Here are six and what to do instead.
#1 – The less vou eat, the more vou’ll lose. When you starve yourself your body engages a primitive response that compensates for starvation by making you overeat. Also, the brain slows down the metabolism to conserve calories and energy, so losing weight becomes harder and harder. Solution: never go on a diet. Instead eat foods that turn on your metabolism like omega-3 fatty acids, and foods that signal the hypothalamus to shut down the hunger for more food (protein, and nuts).
#2 – It doesn’t matter what kind of exercise vou do. as lona as vou exercise. Weight training not only protects against osteoporosis, but it raises the metabolic rate for up to 48 hours after you are done; whereas aerobic exercise raises the metabolic rate for only 1-2 hours after you are done. Aerobics are fine as a secondary exercise, but weight training should be primary.
#3 – You can control vour weight bv counting calories. A 100 calories of cookies are not the same as 100 calories of carrots. Food is not simply about calories. Everything you eat contains instructions for your DNA, your hormones, and your metabolism. Different foods contain different information. For example, the sugar in soda enters your blood rapidly, increasing insulin levels. Insulin is a hormone that promotes fat storage around the middle and raises inflammation levels in the body, which in turn promotes more weight gain. On the other hand, the same amount of sugar from kidney beans enters your blood more slowly. Because sugar is absorbed over time, your insulin levels remain stable and more calories are burned and fewer are stored.
#4 – Eating fat makes vou fat. Dietary fat does not correlate with excess body fat. Any weight-loss resulting from a low-fat diet is usually modest and temporary. All fats are not created equal. Good fats (omega-3 and monosaturated fats) can help you lose weight. Bad fats – include polyunsaturated vegetable oil such as corn and safflower and most saturated fat in meat and animal products such as butter – clog arteries and stimulate the appetite center. Ugly fat are trans fat often found in snack food and packaged baked goods. Good fats improve metabolism and help you burn fats. Saturated and trans fats turn off fat-burning genes.
#5 – Going low carb will make vou thin. Carbs are just as important as protein for log-term health and weight loss. They are the source of most vitamins, minerals and fiber in our diet. All the phytonutrients come from plants. These are key regulators of our health. Phytonutrients turn on the genes that help us burn fat and age more slowly. Eat complex cars; vegetables, fruit, nuts, seeds, and beans. Keep grains to a minimum. Eat low-glycemic foods as opposed to products where the fiber has been taken out.
#6 – it doesn’t matter what time vou eat. Don’t eat within 2 hours of going to bed, because your body needs time to digest and burn off you food. Eat throughout the day. Breakfast is most important.

JUNK FOOD: HOW BAD CAN IT BE?

JUNK FOOD: HOW BAD CAN IT BE?

How bad? Beyond your wildest dreams. Let’s deconstruct a Hostess Twinkie. Thirty-nine ingredients go into the making of a Twinkie. Why 39 when the average cake you bake at home requires just six ingredients? Two words: shelf life. Twinkies can’t contain anything that might spoil, like milk, cream, or butter. Once you remove such real ingredients, something has to take their place, and cellulose gum, lecithin, and sodium stearoyl lactylate are just a few. Let’s start with Trona. Trona is the basic ingredient in baking soda. It is clawed out of rock faces by giant machines thousands of feet under the surface of the earth. Sound yummy yet? How about corn dextrin, a common thickener? It is also the glue on postage stamps and envelopes. Ferrous sulfate, the iron supplement in enriched flour and vitamin pills, is used as a disinfectant and weed killer. Calcium sulfate, a dough conditioner, is food grade plaster of Paris. Shortening (in the form of partially hydrogenated vegetable oil and or beef fat – the worst possible fats) is the main ingredient. Polysorbate is a gooey substance that replaces cream and eggs at a fraction of the cost. It is derived from palm oil and petroleum. Cellulose gum gives the crème filling a smooth, slippery feel. Artificial vanillin is synthesized in petroleum plants. Lecithin is an emulsifier made from soy but also used in paint.
Diacetyl mimics the taste of butter. Cornstarch, a thickener, is also used to make cardboard and packing peanuts. Sorbic acid, a preservative, comes from petroleum. There’s more but we don’t want to kill your appetite or spoil the taste of that expensive chocolate chip cookie you just ordered from Ms. Fields. The rule here is if you can’t pronounce the ingredients in a product, you shouldn’t eat or drink it.

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TRANS FATS: THE REAL DANGER IN YOUR DIET

TRANS FATS: THE REAL DANGER IN YOUR DIET

Trans fats are the corner stone of fast food cooking. A recent study revealed that even small amounts of trans fats led to alarming patterns of weight gain, atherosclerosis, and insulin resistance. Trans fats are the partially hydrogenated vegetable oils in the fryer at most fast-food chains; they are used in many commercial cookies, pies, and crackers. These fats are commercially popular because they are shelf-stable and resistant to high heat. In recent years, though, they’ve become public health enemy number one, as evidence mounted that they contribute to heart disease, high cholesterol, and type 2 diabetes. In early 2006 new Food and Drug Administration rules went into effect requiring food labels to show trans fat content.
Studies set out to document the effects of a high trans-fat diet. But the results showed an impact far beyond hardened arteries. Two groups of male monkeys were fed different regimens over six years. Although the total calories and total dietary fat were the same for each group, the type of fat was not. One group receive trans fats, the other received traditional monosaturated fats. Over six years, monkeys on the trans fat diet added an average of 7.2% of their body mass, while the other group averaged just 1.8% increase. Worse, the new weight from trans fats showed up mostly around the abdomen, a pattern strongly associated with cardiovascular disease in humans. Ominously, the obesity-inducing monkey diet was not so different from the mainstream American diet. The trans fatty acids were roughly 8% of total energy. The conclusion: trans fats are clearly toxic to humans and have no place in human diets.
Trans Fats Go Right To Your Stomach. I was recently asked what one food item I would banish from the earth. My reply was partially hydrogenated oils or trans fats. On New Year’s Day, an FDA ruling goes into effect making it mandatory for food manufacturers to list the amount of trans fat on the nutrition label. This doesn’t eliminate them from foods. But manufacturers have been reformulating food items to reduce or remove these artery-clogging fats from their products or label them accordingly.
There’s solid evidence that trans fats increase cardiovascular risk, more so than saturated fat. They may also promote chronic inflammation, accelerate the aging process, and play a role in cancer.
Here’s my concern: Under the new rules, a product can claim it has no trans fat even though the ingredient list includes partially hydrogenated oil or vegetable shortening. The FDA allows products with less than half a gram of trans fat per serving to be considered trans fat free, meaning the amount of trans fat does not have to be listed separately on the nutrition label. They think this will confuse consumers and make them believe a food might be healthier than it is.
I consider anything made with trans fats to be a low-quality food. I make a serious effort to keep them out of my diet by carefully reading food labels, and I encourage you to do the same. I avoid margarine, vegetable shortening, and all products made with them or with partially hydrogenated oils of any kind. Although small amounts of trans fats occur naturally in meat and dairy products, they are insignificant compared to what’s found in baked goods, margarine, and packaged and fast foods. Unfortunately, foods served in restaurants are not affected by the FDA ruling.

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OBESITY: GENETIC OR HABITUAL

In a ground-breaking experiment, Randy Jirtle began with pairs of fat yellow mice known as agouti mice. So called because they carry a particular gene – the agouti gene -making the rodents ravenous and prone to cancer and diabetes. Most of their offspring are identical to their parents. However, by feeding the mother mice a diet rich in methyl donors, small chemical clusters that can attach to a gene and turn it off – starting just before conception – the babies were born lean, with no predisposition toward cancer or diabetes. These methyl molecules are common in the environment and are found in may foods including onion, garlic, beets, and in food supplements often given to pregnant women.
After being consumed by the mothers, the methyl donors worked their way into the developing embryos’ chromosomes and onto the critical agouti gene. The mothers passed along the agouti gene to the children, but thanks to the methyl-rich pregnancy diet, they added to the gene a chemical switch that dimmed the gene’s deleterious effects. A subtle nutritional change in the pregnant mother rat had a dramatic impact on the gene expression of the baby!
The science lies in the fact that while genes pass down traits, genes themselves need instructions for what to do, and where and when to do it. These instructions are found not in the letters of the DNA itself, but in an array of chemical markers know collectedly as the epigenome. The epigenic switches and markers help switch on or off the expression of particular genes.
Fact: the epigenome is just as critical as the DNA to the healthy development of organisms, human included. Epigenic signals can be passed on from one generation to the next, sometimes for several generations, without changing a single genes sequence. What is eye-opening is a growing body of evidence suggesting that the epigenic changes wrought by one’s diet, behavior, and surrounding can echo far into the future. Put simply, what you eat today can affect the health and behavior of your great -grandchildren.
The commonly held belief is that through our DNA we are destined to have a particular body shape, personate and disease. Some scholars even contend that the genetic code predetermines intelligence and is the root cause of many social ills, including poverty, crime, and violence. Gene as fate had become conventional wisdom. But through the study of epigenic, that notion at last may be proved outdated. Epigenics introduces the concept of free will into our idea of genetics. People used to think that once your epigenic code was laid down in early development that was it for life. To be clear:cancer is not genetic, it is epigenic. Common signaling pathways known to lead to cancerous tumors also activate DNA-methylation machinery – if you eat the right foods and control your environment – knocking out one of the enzymes in that pathway prevents the tumors from developing.
People can maintain the integrity of the epigenome through diet. Lifelong methylation diets may be the key to staying healthy. Two key dietary compounds have already been found: EGCG in green tea, and genistein in soy.

FOOD POLLUTION

Chemicals are used extensively in food production. Fruit trees, for instance, are regularly sprayed with insecticides, fungicides, and herbicides. Golf course superintendents who work with such chemicals have greatly increased incidence of cancer, and neurological illnesses. Poison grain is dropped from planes onto apple orchards to kill rodents. The trees are sprayed with chemicals designed to keep the apples from falling off their stems. After being picked, the fruit is coated with wax to improve appearance, and then stored for several months in warehouses filled with toxic gases to prolong storage before coming to market. When you eat conventionally grown apples, many of these toxins remain on, and even in, the fruit.
No matter how vigilant you are, you can’t avoid accumulating pesticides in your tissues. Pesticide residues are present in all categories of foods, and it is not unusual for a single food item to contain residues of five or more toxic chemicals.
To reduce these toxins, eat organic whenever possible, and soak fruits and vegetables for a few minutes in water with a mixed produce cleaner, which helps remove some of the toxins from the outside of the produce.

ARE YOU A WEIGHT LOSS RECIDIVIST?

ARE YOU A WEIGHT LOSS RECIDIVIST?

One of the most important issues in weight loss is recidivism. Most people who lose weight end up gaining it back. Research on the ghrelin hormone, which is secreted in the stomach, may explain part of the problem. Ghrelin stimulates the appetite at the same time that is slows down the metabolism. Both of these effects contribute to increased fat storage. Levels of this hormone spike before each meal and drop after you’re full. People given injections of ghrelin become extremely hungry, and studies show they eat much more when unlimited food is available.
A recent study showed that ghrelin increases substantially after a period of rapid weight loss. Scientists on the study think this was an evolutionary adaptation to encourage the body to regain the fat lost as protection from possible future famine. Slow, gradual weight loss does not appear to cause the same spike in ghrelin level, however. This is another important reason to approach your ideal weight gradually. Setting your daily caloric level to match your target weight’s maintenance level is the best way to lose weight once and to keep it off.
Say, for example, your baseline caloric intake is 2400 calories (that is, the number of calories you can consume without loosing or gaining weight) before you go on a diet. If you then fail on two diet attempts over a period of a year or more, your baseline will drop to 1200 calories. In other words, the number of calories at which you will gain weight is now half of what it was before your failed diet attempts. This is because your brain (the hypothalamus) thinks that there is a scarcity of food and it slows down the body’s metabolism to conserve calories and fat stores. The only way to lose weight under these circumstances is to raise the basal metabolic rate and to burn more fat. Yes, exercise is important, but not the only way.

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IMPLEMENTING YOUR WEIGHT LOSS PROGRAM

IMPLEMENTING YOUR WEIGHT LOSS PROGRAM

Patience Is The Key. If you lose weight too fast, you’ll be in a program you won’t be able to stay true to. The idea is to make continual progress, not miraculous progress.
Step 1 – Determine your body frame size.
a) Measure your wrist circumference. You can use a tape measure or a piece of string.
b) Use the following table to determine your innate frame size. Unless you are very obese, your wrists don’t change size with weight, so their circumference is a good indicator of natural build.
Step 2 – determine you optimal weight range. This table is available at any doctor’s office or can be downloaded from the internet.
Step 3 – determine and adopt your target calorie level. This is where you begin to consume the calories you would need if you were already at your optimal weight. This is your target calorie level. There are two methods to do this.
Method 1 – Look up your maintenance calorie level in the following table. Interpolate if your optimal weight is in between the given figures. This table provides an estimated maintenance calorie level based on your optimal weight or current weight and activity
Small frame medium frame large frame
Adult males under 6 1/4” 6 ¼”- 7” over 7”
Adult females under 5 ¼” 5 1/4 “- 6”. Over 6”

Weight sedentary moderately active very active
90 1170 1350 1620
100 1300 1500 1800
110 1430 1650 1980
120 1560 1800 2160
130 1690 1950 2340
140 1820 2100 2520
150 1950 2250 2700
160 2080 2400 2880
170 2210 2550 3060
180 2340 2700 3240
Weight sedentary moderately active very active

190 2470 2850 3420
200 2600 3000 3600
210 2730 3150 3780
220 2860 3300 3960
230 2990 3450 4140
240 3120 3600 4320

Sedentary: you sit most of the day, walking only occasionally, and do not have a regular exercise routine.
Moderately active: your normal routine involves frequent walking or physical motion. Alternatively, your normal routine is sedentary but you have a regular exercise program equivalent to walking or running 20 or more miles per week.
Very active: your normal routine involves continuous vigorous physical activity (construction work, carrying mail, and gardening). Very active is equivalent to a moderately active life style plus walking or running approximately 50 miles per week.
Method 2 – Look up the maintenance calories level in Table One for your current weight and exercise level, then subtract 500 calories per day to lose one pound per week (500 X 7 = 3500 calories. One pound = 3600 calories), or 1,000 calories to lose 2 pounds per week. We prefer method 1, where you begin to consume the number of calories needed to maintain your target (optimal) weight.

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HOW TO EAT

The Following principles and recommendations should be the basis of a healthy diet: 1 ) Eat a variety of foods. Eating the same foods day after day may cause allergies to develop. Also, eating the same foods will cause “taste fatigue” and encourage overeating. Eating a variety of foods will promote a balance of nutrition. Each food provides specific amino acids, vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients, but no single food provides all of what you need. Rotate your food.
2) Reduce or eliminate wheat. Wheat, a relatively recent agricultural innovation, is eaten in enormous qualities in Western countries. This has led to wheat sensitivity. Particularly to gluten, a major protein component of wheat. Many people have resolved long-standing digestive problems by going off wheat. Gluten is a strong endorphin trigger. Meaning, once you begin eating foods containing gluten, you will keep eating them.
3) Eat your vegetables. Fresh. Organic vegetables contain loads of valuable nutrients and fiber, and are low on the glycemic index. Be careful not to over-cook. Overcooking destroys vitamins, phytochemicals, and other nutrients. Light steaming is the ideal way to cook.
4) Eat colorful food. By eating a variety of naturally colored vegetables, you obtain a broad spectrum of vital nutrients.
5) Drink freshly squeezed vegetable juice. This is just about the healthiest thing you can drink: putting fresh, organic, low-starch vegetables through a juicer. These drinks are high in vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals.
6) Drink tea. Tea is low in acidity and caffeine (1/3-1/4 that of coffee). A study showed that drinking tea reduced the rates of heart attack by 44%. This applies to black and green tea, not herbal tea.
7) Go easy on alcohol. The body processes it like a carb: loads of high-glycemic calories. The rest of the dangers are well known.
8) Eat breakfast and eat frequently. Don’t skip breakfast. People who do consume 44% more calories during the day than those who eat breakfast. Five small meals are far superior than three big ones. Keeps blood sugar balanced, consume less overall calories.
9) Avoid unhealthy snacks. Typical snack foods are high in fats and sugar which trigger the appetite center, leading to cravings and continuous eating.
10) Plan ahead. Take healthy snacks with you during the day. Take your own sweeter with you (naturlose, stevia).
11 ) Take supplements. You can’t get all the vitamins and minerals you need by eating processed food made from soil depleted of its nutrients. Mega-doses are required.
12) Everything in moderation. Don’t get discouraged if you slip on your diet. Stand up, brush yourself off, and continue.
13) Be aware: sugar is everywhere. Look out for hidden forma of sugar: fructose, sucrose, glucose, maltose, matodextrin, honey, molasses, maple syrup, sucanat, amasake, and high fructose corn syrup.